The minimum coalescence age for modern humans has been estimated to be between 156,000 and 169,000 years before present. Analysis of the L haplogroup has been carried out in order to find those sub-haplogroups involved in the migration of modern humans out of Africa. The L0 haplogroup is the earliest descendant of mitochondrial Eve and is a sister group to the L1 haplogroup. L0 is subdivided into L0a, L0d, L0f and L0k. L0a is thought to have originated in Eastern Africa and is dominant in Ethiopia. The idea that east Africa is the most likely region for L0a variation is further supported by the phylogeny of the L0 clade. L0d and L0k originated in Southern African. L0f is rare and confined to East Africa. The relationship between L0d and L0k is still uncertain.