For: Against: Some cities seem to follow Hoyt's sectors. Bristol, for example, has a very clear industrial sector following a main rail line and the River Avon. Like Burgess' there is little reference to the physical environment. It provides us with an alternative set of explanations to Burgess. The growth of sector can be stopped as land-use leapfrogs out of the old inner city. For example, out of town council estates have prevented large high-class sector developing in other areas of Bristol. Communication routes (Rivers, roads, railways) do often provide a very definite boundary to a sector/land-use. Again, like Burgess, there is no reference to out of town developments.
The Inner City: This is Burgess's zone of transition . The inner city in the 19th Century would have been the centre of industry for most cities. Low paid workers would have lived in the many rows of terraced houses that were built beside the factories. Nowadays, although the factories have gone, many of the terraced houses Inner city of many urban areas has undergone great changes. These are covered in detail in a later section. However once the industry moved out,the inner cities became areas in need of redevelopment. The first plan was to build tall blocks of flats to replace the terraces. This occurred in the 1960's and 1970's. During the 1990's Inner City redevelopment has taken the form of gentrification schemes aimed at rejuvenating the area, producing more of a community spirit, whilst trying to keep some of the old architecture.