55 miles to the gas pump thesis

The 10–15 mode driving cycle test is the official fuel economy and emission certification test for new light duty vehicles in Japan. Fuel economy is expressed in km/L (kilometers per litre) and emissions are expressed in g/km. The test is carried out on a dynamometer and consist of 25 tests which cover idling, acceleration, steady running and deceleration, and simulate typical Japanese urban and/or expressway driving conditions. The running pattern begins with a warm start, lasts for 660 seconds (11 minutes) and runs at speeds up to 70 km/h ( mph). [50] [51] The distance of the cycle is  km ( mi), average speed of  km/h ( mph), and duration 892 seconds ( minutes), including the initial 15 mode segment. [51]

How can benzene affect children? Children can be affected by benzene exposure in the same ways as adults. It is not known if children are more susceptible to benzene poisoning than adults. Benzene can pass from the mother's blood to a fetus. Animal studies have shown low birth weights, delayed bone formation, and bone marrow damage when pregnant animals breathed benzene. How can families reduce the risks of exposure to benzene? Benzene exposure can be reduced by limiting contact with gasoline and cigarette smoke. Families are encouraged not to smoke in their house, in enclosed environments, or near their children. Is there a medical test to show whether I've been exposed to benzene? Several tests can show if you have been exposed to benzene. There is a test for measuring benzene in the breath; this test must be done shortly after exposure. Benzene can also be measured in the blood; however, since benzene disappears rapidly from the blood, this test is only useful for recent exposures. In the body, benzene is converted to products called metabolites. Certain metabolites can be measured in the urine. The metabolite S-phenylmercapturic acid in urine is a sensitive indicator of benzene exposure. However, this test must be done shortly after exposure and is not a reliable indicator of how much benzene you have been exposed to, since the metabolites may be present in urine from other sources. Has the federal government made recommendations to protect human health? The EPA has set the maximum permissible level of benzene in drinking water at 5 parts benzene per billion parts of water (5 ppb). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set limits of 1 part benzene per million parts of workplace air (1 ppm) for 8 hour shifts and 40 hour work weeks. References Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1997. Managing Hazardous Materials Incidents. Volume III – Medical Management Guidelines for Acute Chemical Exposures: Benzene. Atlanta, GA: . Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2005. Toxicological Profile for benzene. (Draft for Public Comment). Atlanta, GA: . Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Where can I get more information? ATSDR can tell you where to find occupational and environmental health clinics. Their specialists can recognize, evaluate, and treat illnesses resulting from exposure to hazardous substances. You can also contact your community or state health or environmental quality department if you have any more questions or concerns. For more information, contact: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Division of Toxicology 1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop F-32 Atlanta, GA 30333 Phone: 1-888-42-ATSDR (1-888-422-8737) FAX: (770)-488-4178 Email: [email protected]

55 miles to the gas pump thesis

55 miles to the gas pump thesis

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55 miles to the gas pump thesis55 miles to the gas pump thesis55 miles to the gas pump thesis55 miles to the gas pump thesis